November 19, 2020

HopsFS-S3: Extending Object Stores with POSIX-like Semantics and more (industry track)

HopsFS-S3 is a hybrid cloud-native distributed hierarchical file system that is available across availability zones, has the same cost as S3, but has 100X the performance of S3 for file move/rename operations, and 3.4X the read throughput of S3 (EMRFS) for the DFSIO Benchmark.

Authors

Mahmoud Ismail, Salman Niazi, Gautier Berthou, Mikael Ronström, Seif Haridi, Jim Dowling

Abstract

Object stores have become the de-facto platform for storage in the cloud due to their scalability, high availability, and low cost. However, they provide weaker metadata semantics and lower performance compared to distributed hierarchical file systems. In this paper, we introduce HopsFS-S3, a hybrid distributed hierarchical file system backed by an object store while preserving the file system’s strong consistency semantics. We base our implementation on HopsFS, a next- generation distribution of HDFS with distributed metadata. We redesigned HopsFS’ block storage layer to transparently use an object store to store the file’s blocks without sacrificing the file system’s semantics. We also introduced a new block caching service to leverage faster NVMe storage for hot blocks. In our experiments, we show that HopsFS-S3 outperforms EMRFS for IO-bound workloads, with up to 20% higher performance and delivers up to 3.4𝑋 the aggregated read throughput of EMRFS. Moreover, we demonstrate that metadata operations on HopsFS-S3 (such as directory re- name) are up to two orders of magnitude faster than EMRFS. Finally, HopsFS-S3 opens up the currently closed metadata in object stores, enabling correctly-ordered change notifications with HopsFS’ change data capture (CDC) API and customized extensions to metadata.

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